Alpha Beta Gamma Radiation
When radioactive radiations are subjected to a magnetic field or a strong electric field, these were split in to three types, these three types of radiation are called alpha which is attracted towards the negative plate of the electric field the beta which is attracted towards the positive plate of eh electric field and the gamma radiation goes undeflected.the important properties of the alpha, beta and gamma rays are described below:
Characteristics of Alpha Beta Gamma Radiation
Nature the alpha particles are consist of positively charge particles which are nuclei of helium atom the symbol is2He4.
The beta particles are nothing but the electrons they have same e/m values as cathode rays.
They are represented by the symbol -1, they are negatively charges particle
The gamma particles are similar to x rays and neutral in nature. They are neutral in nature. They have small wavelength of the order of 10-10 or 10-13
alpha beta gamma radiation
Velocity: the alpha particle has 1/ 100 times the velocity of light,
The beta particle travels with the speed almost equal to the speed of light. That is their speed is 1/10 times the speed of light.
The gamma particles travel with the speed of light. As they are nothing but electromagnetic radiation.
Penetrating power: They have less penetrating power. They can be stopped by the aluminum foil of 0.1mm thickness
Therefore beta a particle has more penetrating power compared to alpha particle they are stopped 1cm thick sheet of aluminum. The gamma particle has the highest penetrating power; they have 1010 times more penetrating power than the alpha particles.
Alpha particles have the most intense ionization power to its high kinetic energy. It is 100 times greater than that of the beta particle and the 10,000 times greater than the gamma particle.
B particle has most effect on the photographic plates like cathode rays they produce X- rays, the gamma particle has very little effect on the photographic plate.
Effect on the Zinc sulfide screen.
Alpha particles produce luminosity on the zinc sulfide screen due to its high kinetic energy, beta particles has less effect and the gamma particles have very little effect on the plate.